Tuesday, November 29, 2011

Signed Jars and Certificate

1. Public/Private key Pair
It is used in two scenarios:
1) Encryption: encrypt secure content by public key of the opposite side, e.g., SSL handshake, client (browser) encrypts a random symmetric encryption key with web server's public key, web server will decrypt it with its own private key and get the symmetirc key, thereafter, they send/receive message en/deccrypted by using the symmetic key;
2) Digital Signing: encrypt the message by your private key, to certify the message (*unsecure*) coming from you. The receiver will decrypt it with your public key.

2. Certificate
Naturally, the question arises. How to broadcast your public key? The answer is: certificate. The certificate contains the reference to the issuer, the public key of the owner of this certificate, the dates of validity of this certificate and the signature of the certificate to ensure this certificate hasen't been tampered with. Usually your browser or application has already loaded the root certificate of well known Certification Authorities (CA) or root CA Certificates. The CA maintains a list of all signed certificates as well as a list of revoked certificates. A certificate is insecure until it is signed (**signed by a CA certificate, in the other words, encrypted by a CA authority's private key), as only a signed certificate cannot be modified. You can sign a certificate using itself, it is called a self signed certificate. All root CA certificates are self signed.

The certificate has all the elements to send an encrypted message to the owner (using the public key) or to verify a message signed by the author of this certificate.

3) Signed Jars
When jarsigner is used to sign a JAR file, the output signed JAR file is exactly the same as the input JAR file, except that it has two additional files placed in the META-INF directory:

- a signature file, with a .SF extension, (**digest value for the three lines in the manifest file for the source file)
- a signature block file, with a .DSA, .RSA, or .EC extension. (** signature of .SF, we actually sign the signature(digest) of signature)

The .SF file is signed and the signature is placed in the signature block file. This file also contains, encoded inside it, the certificate or certificate chain from the keystore which authenticates the public key corresponding to the private key used for signing.

SSL Certificates HOWTO
jarsigner - JAR Signing and Verification Tool

Tuesday, November 15, 2011

Rethrown exception disregarded

public void badmethod() throws Exception {
  boolean error = false;
  try {
   throw new Exception();
  } catch (Exception  e) {
   error = true;
   throw e;
  } finally {
   if (error) return;
 public void testbadmethod() {
  try {
  } catch (Exception ae) {
It prints out "WRONG". i.e., with return statement in finally caluse, the rethrown exception is swallowed.